When talking about bone marrow transplantation, one needs to know that the basic role of it is to replace the damaged cells within a human body with some healthy cells. When this is done, the human body again becomes capable to make enough amounts of new platelets. It also becomes able to form new red and white blood cells which can avoid the bleeding disorder or any kind of infection attacks. The healthy cells are mostly donated by the healthy donor or it can also be collected from the same human body only. In the second case, the stem cells taken from the patient’s body is harvested before the chemotherapy begins. These cells are needed to be stored well because they can be of great use in the process of transplantation.
When bone marrow transplantation treatment in India happens it completely depends on the specialised doctors. Only they can decide, which transplantation has to be performed on the patient’s body depending on the disease they have and at present in what stage it is in. This transplantation also needs to consider the overall health structure of the patient and the risk factors that can come up along with the transplantation.
Three major types of bone marrow transplantation
Autologus bone marrow transplantation
Here the stem cells are mainly removed from the patient’s body before the doctors start the radiotherapy treatment or chemotherapy in their body. Once the stem cells are removed, they are stored in a freezer for a time. After the chemotherapy dose is over, these stored stem cells are planted back again in the body so that they can start functioning like normal body cells again.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
In this case, the stem cells are mostly collected from other person’s body who are termed as the donors. But one has to choose the donors very carefully. The donor’s genes have to match with the patient. To find that, some specific tests are performed. It is said that if the patient has their own siblings then they can be a match. There are high chances of match there but if that does not happen then one needs to call for other donors.
Umbilical cord blood transplantation
Here the stem cells are removed from the umbilical cord of a new born baby just after they are born. Here the stem cells are again stored and frozen till they are needed for the transplantation process. Umbilical cord blood cells are very immature. So there is less of a need for perfect matching. Due to the smaller number of stem cells, blood counts take much longer to recover.
The patients before donating their own stem cells can ask the doctor which can be the best cell source for them. This also depends on the age, body weight and disease and the stage of disease of the patient. One also has the right to know what kind of side effects they are going to face when they decide to undertake this procedure of transplant.